The main reason people are afraid to admit there are differences among the races -or even admit that race is a biological reality and not a social construct- is because it conjures up sentiments of ‘superiority’ and reminds people of Hitler’s Germany.
They think, “Well, if there are racial differences, then that means that some races are better than others, and I don’t want to go there.” It’s better to just ignore any differences and acquiesce to the pressure of their peers and claim we are all exactly the same; we are all one.
Scientists and professors are human. We all make mistakes. Rather than admit the truth about race, they prefer to ignore the vast amount of evidence on racial differences, mostly so they don’t have to live in fear of potentially being called a ‘racist’.
The following are peer reviewed studies that suggest that there exists many differences among the various races of mankind. If you want to call me a racist, that’s fine, you can do so in the comments but facts are facts.
The Genetic/Biological Basis of Racial Differences
Philosophy of Science That Ignores Science: Race, IQ and Heritability (National Academy of Sciences)
Philosophers of science widely believe that the hereditarian theory about racial differences in IQ is based on methodological mistakes and confusions involving the concept of heritability. I argue that this “received view” is wrong: methodological criticisms popular among philosophers are seriously misconceived, and the discussion in philosophy of science about these matters is largely disconnected from the real, empirically complex issues debated in science.
“It’s a concept we think is too crude to provide useful information, it’s a concept that has social meaning that interferes in the scientific understanding of human genetic diversity and it’s a concept that we are not the first to call upon moving away from,” said Michael Yudell, a professor of public health at Drexel University in Philadelphia.
The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart – bio.utexas.edu (Differences in intelligence are not all cultural)
THE CULTURAL MALLEABILITY OF INTELLIGENCE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE RACIAL/ETHNIC HIERARCHY – Lisa Suzuki and Joshua Aronson – New York University
The heritability of IQ (a study of twins and siblings)
“Meta-analysis of 212 previous studies shows that our ‘maternal-effects’ model fits the data better than the ‘family-environments’ model.
Ethnic Differences in Sleep, Obesity, and Metabolic Syndromes
African Americans sleep on average almost an hour less than do Euro Americans. The two groups have mean sleep times of 6.05 hours and 6.85 hours. This finding has recently been discussed by Brian Resnick in National Journal
Ethnic difference in periodic limb movements in children.
“Epidemiological studies have suggested that ethnicity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and that African-American children are three times more likely than Caucasian children to have SDB.”
Racial Differences in Home Dialysis Utilization and Outcomes in Canada.
“Compared with whites, treatment with home dialysis was lower among Aboriginals and higher in Asians and others but similar in blacks and subcontinent Indians. Black and Aboriginal patients treated with peritoneal dialysis had a significantly higher adjusted risk of technique failure compared with whites, whereas Asians had a lower risk.
“Hispanics in particular are at elevated risk for liver fat accumulation because of the higher frequency of genetic variants such as patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR).”
Ethnic differences in peripheral skeletal development among urban South African adolescents
“The aim of this study was to compare skeletal development in black and white South African adolescents…By four years post APHV, white adolescents had significantly greater cortical CSA and SSIp than black adolescents at the radius. … …At the tibia, white adolescents had lower diaphyseal CSA and SSIp, and greater metaphyseal CSA …There are ethnic differences in bone growth and development, independent of maturation, in South African adolescents.”
Differences Are Important: Breast Cancer Therapy in Different Ethnic Groups
“Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among Asian women. …The premise of interethnic variability is further corroborated by reports of differential drug metabolism of agents other than palbociclib, such as tamoxifen, through the CYP complex. For instance, as many as 30% of whites are poor metabolizers of tamoxifen given the predominance of the CYP2D6*4 allele (rare among Asians); conversely, 38% to 70% of Asians are intermediate metabolizers of tamoxifen given CYP2D6*10 allele presence (rare among non-Asians)..Asian patients had higher rates of grade 3 and 4 neutropenia compared with non-Asians.
Black women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease compared with white women with PCOS (American Society for Reproductive Medicine)
Metabolic differences between race and sex
“Recent reports have identified a lower resting metabolic rate in African Americans than in whites”
Fat oxidation is lower in black than white men and in African American men/women and white men/women, they have a lower metabolic rate!!
“Total daily energy expenditure was 10% lower (P < 0.01) in African-Americans compared with Caucasians due to a 5% lower resting metabolic rate (P < 0.01) and 19% lower physical activity energy expenditure “
Brain size matters
Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits
“A review of the world literature on brain size and IQ by Rushton [Rushton, J. P. (1995). Race, evolution, and behavior: a life history perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction] found that African-descended people (Blacks) average cranial capacities of 1267 cm3, European-descended people (Whites) 1347 cm3, and East Asian-descended people (East Asians) 1364 cm3. These brain size differences, containing millions of brain cells and hundreds of millions of synapses, were hypothesized to underlie the race differences on IQ tests, in which Blacks average an IQ of 85, Whites 100, and East Asians 106……….Across the three populations, the “ecological correlations” [Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor. Westport, CT: Praeger] between brain size and the 37 morphological traits averaged a remarkable r = .94; ρ = .94. If the races did not differ in brain size, these correlations could not have been found. It must be concluded that the race differences in average brain size are securely established. As such, brain size-related variables provide the most likely biological mediators of the race differences in intelligence.
The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin
“The recent study by Thompson and colleagues1 reported high heritability of gray-matter volume in several cortical regions using voxel-based MRI techniques. Gray matter substantially correlated with general intelligence, or ‘g’.
Genetics of brain structure and intelligence.
“Genetic influences on brain morphology and IQ are well studied. …. A measure of cognitive ability, known as g, has been shown highly heritable across many studies. We argue that these genetic links are partly mediated by brain structure that is likewise under strong genetic control. Other factors, such as the environment, obviously play a role, but the predominant determinant appears to be genetic.”
Genes for susceptibility to violence lurk in the brain (National Academy of Sciences)
“ The political, social, or economic causes of violence are well studied, but more recently the awareness has grown that biological causes, which may explain individual differences in predisposition to violence, also need to be investigated. … A wealth of twin and adoption studies confirms that individual differences in violent/antisocial behavior are heritable (5). It is unlikely that genes directly code for violence; rather, allelic variation is responsible for individual differences in neurocognitive functioning that, in turn, may determine differential predisposition to violent behavior.”
AGGRESSIVENESS, CRIMINALITY AND SEX DRIVE BY RACE, GENDER AND ETHNICITY
Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits (Sage Journals)
“There is now a large body of evidence that supports the conclusion that individual differences in most, if not all, reliably measured psychological traits, normal and abnormal, are substantively influenced by genetic factors. “
Browse the medical literature yourself:
It is full of evidence that shows biological differences between the various races:
Search US National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health Search database (pub.gov)
Search for “ethnic differences”
Search for “racial differences”
Extra links & and the 99.9% similar DNA fallacy
Bone Marrow Donor Matching for Patients of Mixed Race
“Two individuals are far more likely be a match if they are of the same race.
“At a time when the number of multiracial Americans is rising, only a tiny fraction of donors on the national bone-marrow registry are of mixed race. The National Marrow Donor Program is trying to change that by seeking more diverse donors for patients suffering from leukemia, lymphoma and other blood diseases.
“The truth is, when people of different backgrounds marry and produce offspring, it creates more types that are harder to match,” said Michelle Setterholm, the program’s director of scientific services. “The probability just gets lower when you have people of mixed ancestral DNA.”
Patient Race/Ethnicity and Quality of Patient–Physician Communication During Medical Visits
The existence of racial/ethnic health disparities in health care in the United States is largely undisputed.
Multiracial persons are often confronted with issues surrounding visual ambiguity, identity confusion, rejection from familial or ethnic groups, and inability to identify with every component of a diverse racial background due to societal pressures
We learned from the Human Genome Project that we are all genetically 99.9 percent alike. However, given that each person’s genome contains 6 billion bases of DNA, a 0.1 percent difference represents 6 million locations that differ between two individuals’ DNA
“The Problem With Race Based Medicine” (When you view race as a social construct)
The myth that we are 99.9% the same
It “can be something close to professional suicide” for researchers to even suggest race exists, psychiatrist Sally Satel wrote in the Dec. 2001-Jan. 2002 issue of the magazine Policy Review.
Sept. 3, 2007
Special to World Science .
A renowned scientist has backed off a finding that he, joined by others, long touted as evidence for what they called a proven fact: that racial differences among people are imaginary.That idea—entrenched today in academia, and often used to castigate scholars who study race—has drawn much of its scientific backing from a finding that all people are 99.9 percent genetically alike.
But geneticist Craig Venter, head of a research team that reported that figure in 2001, backed off it in an announcement this week. He said human variation now turns out to be over seven times greater than was thought… …In a teleconference on Monday, Venter and colleagues announced their revised assessment of human diversity, based on a study of Venter’s own DNA. It was the first “diploid” genome published to date, said Venter and members of his research team at the J. Craig Venter Institute in Rockville, Md. This means it was the first listing of the sequence of letters of genetic code from both of a person’s chromosome sets, the genes inherited from the mother and the father.
The findings reveal “human-to-human variation is more than seven-fold greater than earlier estimates, proving that we are in fact very unique individuals at the genetic level,” Venter said. The 99.9 figure might need to be lowered to about 99, he added. …The original estimate showing near-zero variability in the genome, a product of the Human Genome Project, was a result of the different technology used for that work, said a colleague of Venter’s, Stephen Scherer of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.
The technique originally used, Scherer said, could read the sequence of letters of a genetic code. But it couldn’t detect repetitions of some parts of the code, which also occur. Differences in the number of these repetitions, called copy number variants, have since turned out to account for much of the variation in a species’ DNA.
Ever since researchers sequenced the chimp genome in 2005, they have known that humans share about 99% of our DNA with chimpanzees, making them our closest living relatives.
“A longstanding orthodoxy among social scientists holds that human races are a social construct and have no biological basis. A related assumption is that human evolution halted in the distant past, so long ago that evolutionary explanations need never be considered by historians or economists.
In the decade since the decoding of the human genome, a growing wealth of data has made clear that these two positions, never at all likely to begin with, are simply incorrect. There is indeed a biological basis for race. “
I think there tends to be a big mis-understanding of what that number means. When you hear that number you assume that 99% of the information in each person is the same. But we don’t understand how much or how the DNA molecule stores information.
When they say “same DNA”, generally they are talking about the sequence of amino acids are 99% the same. But we have VERY LITTLE IDEA how information is stored in them and what the limitations or lack of limitations in that information are. We know that the same code can store vastly different information -David Kincade
You may have heard that humans are 99.9% the same as each other. Well, not anymore.
New research is showing that we are less alike than this. There isn’t an exact number yet but the new number is probably somewhere between 99.0 and 99.9%.
Most studies indicate that when genomic regions are compared between chimpanzees and humans, they share about 98.5 percent sequence identity.
Given the very strong similarity between the chimpanzee and human genomes, many people wonder how we can be so different. At this point, there have been only a few isolated examples of genes that are functionally present in chimpanzees but not in humans, and vice versa. Thus, chimps and humans may share as many as 99.9 percent of the same genes with most of those genes being 99 percent similar in their sequences.
Relatively small genetic changes can produce major phenotypic changes.
We have generated an independently assembled diploid human genomic DNA sequence from both chromosomes of a single individual (J. Craig Venter). Our approach, based on whole-genome shotgun sequencing and using enhanced genome assembly strategies and software, generated an assembled genome over half of which is represented in large diploid segments (>200 kilobases), enabling study of the diploid genome. Comparison with previous reference human genome sequences, which were composites comprising multiple humans, revealed that the majority of genomic alterations are the well-studied class of variants based on single nucleotides (SNPs). However, the results also reveal that lesser-studied genomic variants, insertions and deletions, while comprising a minority (22%) of genomic variation events, actually account for almost 74% of variant nucleotides. Inclusion of insertion and deletion genetic variation into our estimates of interchromosomal difference reveals that only 99.5% similarity exists between the two chromosomal copies of an individual and that genetic variation between two individuals is as much as five times higher than previously estimated. The existence of a well-characterized diploid human genome sequence provides a starting point for future individual genome comparisons and enables the emerging era of individualized genomic information.
The answer is inescapable; it’s because race is not a social construct, but a biological reality.