Race Is A Biological Reality: Your Opinion Is A Social Construct

The main reason people are afraid to admit there are differences among the races -or even admit that race is a biological reality and not a social construct- is because it conjures up sentiments of ‘superiority’ and reminds people of Hitler’s Germany.

They think, “Well, if there are racial differences, then that means that some races are better than others, and I don’t want to go there.”  It’s better to just ignore any differences and acquiesce to the pressure of their peers and claim we are all exactly the same; we are all one.

Scientists and professors are human. We all make mistakes. Rather than admit the truth about race, they prefer to ignore the vast amount of evidence on racial differences, mostly so they don’t have to live in fear of potentially being called a ‘racist’.

The following are peer reviewed studies that suggest that there exists many differences among the various races of mankind.  If you want to call me a racist, that’s fine, you can do so in the comments but facts are facts.


The Genetic/Biological Basis of Racial Differences

 

Philosophy of Science That Ignores Science: Race, IQ and Heritability (National Academy of Sciences)

Philosophers of science widely believe that the hereditarian theory about racial differences in IQ is based on methodological mistakes and confusions involving the concept of heritability. I argue that this “received view” is wrong: methodological criticisms popular among philosophers are seriously misconceived, and the discussion in philosophy of science about these matters is largely disconnected from the real, empirically complex issues debated in science.

http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/392856

http://archive.is/IFYVz

“It’s a concept we think is too crude to provide useful information, it’s a concept that has social meaning that interferes in the scientific understanding of human genetic diversity and it’s a concept that we are not the first to call upon moving away from,” said Michael Yudell, a professor of public health at Drexel University in Philadelphia.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/race-is-a-social-construct-scientists-argue/

The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart – bio.utexas.edu (Differences in intelligence are not all cultural)

http://www.bio.utexas.edu/courses/kalthoff/bio346/PDF/Readings/14Bouchard(1990).pdf

http://archive.is/E8yuB

THE CULTURAL MALLEABILITY OF INTELLIGENCE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE RACIAL/ETHNIC HIERARCHY – Lisa Suzuki and Joshua Aronson – New York University

http://www1.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/30years/Suzuki-Aronson-commentary-on-30years.pdf

The heritability of IQ (a study of twins and siblings)

“Meta-analysis of 212 previous studies shows that our ‘maternal-effects’ model fits the data better than the ‘family-environments’ model.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v388/n6641/full/388468a0.html?foxtrotcallback=true

http://archive.is/5vOQi

Ethnic Differences in Sleep, Obesity, and Metabolic Syndromes

https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2016/09/21/ethnic-differences-in-sleep-obesity-and-metabolic-syndromes/

African Americans sleep on average almost an hour less than do Euro Americans. The two groups have mean sleep times of 6.05 hours and 6.85 hours. This finding has recently been discussed by Brian Resnick in National Journal

http://www.unz.com/pfrost/the-missing-hour-of-sleep/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16390283

http://archive.is/5c5LW

Ethnic difference in periodic limb movements in children.

“Epidemiological studies have suggested that ethnicity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and that African-American children are three times more likely than Caucasian children to have SDB.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17368099

http://archive.is/8IKJO

Racial Differences in Home Dialysis Utilization and Outcomes in Canada.

“Compared with whites, treatment with home dialysis was lower among Aboriginals and higher in Asians and others but similar in blacks and subcontinent Indians. Black and Aboriginal patients treated with peritoneal dialysis had a significantly higher adjusted risk of technique failure compared with whites, whereas Asians had a lower risk.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28835369

http://archive.is/yNh09

“Hispanics in particular are at elevated risk for liver fat accumulation because of the higher frequency of genetic variants such as patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR).”

http://corc.usc.edu/pdf/MCO200801.pdf

http://archive.is/VwpBl

Ethnic differences in peripheral skeletal development among urban South African adolescents

“The aim of this study was to compare skeletal development in black and white South African adolescents…By four years post APHV, white adolescents had significantly greater cortical CSA and SSIp than black adolescents at the radius. …   …At the tibia, white adolescents had lower diaphyseal CSA and SSIp, and greater metaphyseal CSA  …There are ethnic differences in bone growth and development, independent of maturation, in South African adolescents.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28834567

http://archive.is/lFTJ7

Differences Are Important: Breast Cancer Therapy in Different Ethnic Groups

“Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among Asian women.  …The premise of interethnic variability is further corroborated by reports of differential drug metabolism of agents other than palbociclib, such as tamoxifen, through the CYP complex. For instance, as many as 30% of whites are poor metabolizers of tamoxifen given the predominance of the CYP2D6*4 allele (rare among Asians); conversely, 38% to 70% of Asians are intermediate metabolizers of tamoxifen given CYP2D6*10 allele presence (rare among non-Asians)..Asian patients had higher rates of grade 3 and 4 neutropenia compared with non-Asians.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560466/

http://archive.is/diQbt

Black women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease compared with white women with PCOS (American Society for Reproductive Medicine)

http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(13)03253-6/abstract

http://archive.is/hI1Ug

Metabolic differences between race and sex

“Recent reports have identified a lower resting metabolic rate in African Americans than in whites”

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/70/1/13.full

http://archive.is/CAf78

Fat oxidation is lower in black than white men and in African American men/women and white men/women, they have a lower metabolic rate!!

“Total daily energy expenditure was 10% lower (P < 0.01) in African-Americans compared with Caucasians due to a 5% lower resting metabolic rate (P < 0.01) and 19% lower physical activity energy expenditure “

http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/274/1/E96?ijkey=6137b59abbc0085b8cfa47528ab02d3e385bb267&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://archive.is/RbwhQ

Brain size matters

http://www.euvolution.com/articles/brainsize.html

Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits

“A review of the world literature on brain size and IQ by Rushton [Rushton, J. P. (1995). Race, evolution, and behavior: a life history perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction] found that African-descended people (Blacks) average cranial capacities of 1267 cm3, European-descended people (Whites) 1347 cm3, and East Asian-descended people (East Asians) 1364 cm3. These brain size differences, containing millions of brain cells and hundreds of millions of synapses, were hypothesized to underlie the race differences on IQ tests, in which Blacks average an IQ of 85, Whites 100, and East Asians 106……….Across the three populations, the “ecological correlations” [Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor. Westport, CT: Praeger] between brain size and the 37 morphological traits averaged a remarkable r = .94; ρ = .94. If the races did not differ in brain size, these correlations could not have been found. It must be concluded that the race differences in average brain size are securely established. As such, brain size-related variables provide the most likely biological mediators of the race differences in intelligence.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016028960200137X

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.472.2731

http://archive.is/7R6sW

The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin

“The recent study by Thompson and colleagues1 reported high heritability of gray-matter volume in several cortical regions using voxel-based MRI techniques. Gray matter substantially correlated with general intelligence, or ‘g’.

https://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v5/n2/full/nn0202-83.html

http://archive.is/d74w6

Genetics of brain structure and intelligence.

“Genetic influences on brain morphology and IQ are well studied. …. A measure of cognitive ability, known as g, has been shown highly heritable across many studies. We argue that these genetic links are partly mediated by brain structure that is likewise under strong genetic control. Other factors, such as the environment, obviously play a role, but the predominant determinant appears to be genetic.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15651931

http://archive.is/Qhk4M

Genes for susceptibility to violence lurk in the brain (National Academy of Sciences)

  The political, social, or economic causes of violence are well studied, but more recently the awareness has grown that biological causes, which may explain individual differences in predisposition to violence, also need to be investigated. … A wealth of twin and adoption studies confirms that individual differences in violent/antisocial behavior are heritable (5). It is unlikely that genes directly code for violence; rather, allelic variation is responsible for individual differences in neurocognitive functioning that, in turn, may determine differential predisposition to violent behavior.”

http://www.pnas.org/content/103/16/6085.full

http://archive.is/FZcLt

AGGRESSIVENESS, CRIMINALITY AND SEX DRIVE BY RACE, GENDER AND ETHNICITY

http://www.lagriffedulion.f2s.com/fuzzy.htm

Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits (Sage Journals)

“There is now a large body of evidence that supports the conclusion that individual differences in most, if not all, reliably measured psychological traits, normal and abnormal, are substantively influenced by genetic factors. “

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00295.x

http://archive.is/TNNed

 

Browse the medical literature yourself:

It is full of evidence that shows biological differences between the various races:

Search US National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health Search database (pub.gov)

Search for “ethnic differences”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=ethnic+differences

http://archive.is/etYZN

Search for “racial differences”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=racial+differences

http://archive.is/Qb2Fu

 

Extra links & and the 99.9% similar DNA fallacy

https://lesacreduprintemps19.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/jp-rushton-race-evolution-behavior-unabridged-1997-edition.pdf

https://www.amren.com/ar/1999/10/index.html#cover

https://www.amren.com/news/2016/08/the-biological-reality-of-race-2/

http://www.harbornet.com/folks/theedrich/JP_Rushton/Race.htm

 

Racial Differences

https://pastelink.net/51s3

Miscegenation Problems

https://pastelink.net/miscegenationproblems

Bone Marrow Donor Matching for Patients of Mixed Race

“Two individuals are far more likely be a match if they are of the same race.

http://www.indiana.edu/~econdept/workshops/Fall_2009_Papers/Mixedrace3.pdf

“At a time when the number of multiracial Americans is rising, only a tiny fraction of donors on the national bone-marrow registry are of mixed race. The National Marrow Donor Program is trying to change that by seeking more diverse donors for patients suffering from leukemia, lymphoma and other blood diseases.

“The truth is, when people of different backgrounds marry and produce offspring, it creates more types that are harder to match,” said Michelle Setterholm, the program’s director of scientific services. “The probability just gets lower when you have people of mixed ancestral DNA.”

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/marrow-donors-rare-for-mixed-race-patients/

Patient Race/Ethnicity and Quality of Patient–Physician Communication During Medical Visits

The existence of racial/ethnic health disparities in health care in the United States is largely undisputed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448596/

Multiracial persons are often confronted with issues surrounding visual ambiguity, identity confusion, rejection from familial or ethnic groups, and inability to identify with every component of a diverse racial background due to societal pressures

We learned from the Human Genome Project that we are all genetically 99.9 percent alike. However, given that each person’s genome contains 6 billion bases of DNA, a 0.1 percent difference represents 6 million locations that differ between two individuals’ DNA

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600806/

“The Problem With Race Based Medicine” (When you view race as a social construct)

http://tedmed.com/talks/show?id=530900

The myth that we are 99.9% the same

It “can be some­thing close to pro­fes­sion­al sui­cide” for re­search­ers to even sug­gest race ex­ists, psy­chi­a­trist Sa­lly Sa­tel wrote in the Dec. 2001-Jan. 2002 is­sue of the mag­a­zine Pol­i­cy Re­view.

Sept. 3, 2007

Special to World Science .

A re­nowned sci­ent­ist has backed off a find­ing that he, joined by oth­ers, long touted as ev­i­dence for what they called a prov­en fact: that ra­cial dif­fer­ences among peo­ple are im­ag­i­nary.That idea—en­trenched to­day in ac­a­dem­ia, and of­ten used to cast­i­gate schol­ars who study race—has drawn much of its sci­en­tif­ic back­ing from a find­ing that all peo­ple are 99.9 per­cent ge­net­ic­ally alike.

But ge­net­icist Craig Ven­ter, head of a re­search team that re­ported that fig­ure in 2001, backed off it in an an­nounce­ment this week. He said hu­man varia­t­ion now turns out to be over sev­en times great­er than was thought… …In a tele­con­fer­ence on Mon­day, Ven­ter and col­leagues an­nounced their re­vised as­sess­ment of hu­man di­vers­ity, based on a study of Ven­ter’s own DNA. It was the first “diploid” ge­nome pub­lished to date, said Ven­ter and mem­bers of his re­search team at the J. Craig Ven­ter In­sti­tute in Rock­ville, Md. This means it was the first list­ing of the se­quence of let­ters of ge­net­ic code from both of a per­son’s chro­mo­some sets, the genes in­her­it­ed from the moth­er and the fa­ther.

The find­ings re­veal “hu­man-to-hu­man varia­t­ion is more than sev­en-fold great­er than ear­li­er es­ti­mates, prov­ing that we are in fact very un­ique in­di­vid­u­als at the ge­net­ic lev­el,” Ven­ter said. The 99.9 fi­gure might need to be lowered to about 99, he added. …The orig­i­nal es­ti­mate show­ing near-zero vari­abil­ity in the ge­nome, a prod­uct of the Hu­man Ge­nome Proj­ect, was a re­sult of the dif­fer­ent tech­nol­o­gy used for that work, said a col­league of Ven­ter’s, Ste­phen Scherer of the Hos­pi­tal for Sick Chil­dren in To­ron­to.

The tech­nique orig­i­nally used, Scherer said, could read the se­quence of let­ters of a ge­net­ic code. But it could­n’t de­tect repe­ti­tions of some parts of the code, which al­so oc­cur. Dif­fer­ences in the num­ber of these repe­ti­tions, called copy num­ber vari­ants, have since turned out to ac­count for much of the varia­t­ion in a species’ DNA.

https://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/03/05/the-myth-that-all-geneticists-say-thre-is-no-such-thing-as-race/

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/070904_human-variation.htm

Ever since researchers sequenced the chimp genome in 2005, they have known that humans share about 99% of our DNA with chimpanzees, making them our closest living relatives. 

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2012/06/bonobos-join-chimps-closest-human-relatives

“A longstanding orthodoxy among social scientists holds that human races are a social construct and have no biological basis. A related assumption is that human evolution halted in the distant past, so long ago that evolutionary explanations need never be considered by historians or economists.

In the decade since the decoding of the human genome, a growing wealth of data has made clear that these two positions, never at all likely to begin with, are simply incorrect. There is indeed a biological basis for race. “

http://time.com/91081/what-science-says-about-race-and-genetics/

99%?

I think there tends to be a big mis-understanding of what that number means. When you hear that number you assume that 99% of the information in each person is the same. But we don’t understand how much or how the DNA molecule stores information.

When they say “same DNA”, generally they are talking about the sequence of amino acids are 99% the same. But we have VERY LITTLE IDEA how information is stored in them and what the limitations or lack of limitations in that information are. We know that the same code can store vastly different information -David Kincade

https://www.quora.com/Is-that-true-that-all-humans-share-99-the-same-DNA-no-matter-how-different-two-people-are

You may have heard that humans are 99.9% the same as each other. Well, not anymore.

New research is showing that we are less alike than this. There isn’t an exact number yet but the new number is probably somewhere between 99.0 and 99.9%.

http://genetics.thetech.org/original_news/news38

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6174510.stm

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7118/abs/nature05329.html

Most studies indicate that when genomic regions are compared between chimpanzees and humans, they share about 98.5 percent sequence identity.

Given the very strong similarity between the chimpanzee and human genomes, many people wonder how we can be so different. At this point, there have been only a few isolated examples of genes that are functionally present in chimpanzees but not in humans, and vice versa. Thus, chimps and humans may share as many as 99.9 percent of the same genes with most of those genes being 99 percent similar in their sequences.

Relatively small genetic changes can produce major phenotypic changes.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-does-the-fact-that-w/

We have generated an independently assembled diploid human genomic DNA sequence from both chromosomes of a single individual (J. Craig Venter). Our approach, based on whole-genome shotgun sequencing and using enhanced genome assembly strategies and software, generated an assembled genome over half of which is represented in large diploid segments (>200 kilobases), enabling study of the diploid genome. Comparison with previous reference human genome sequences, which were composites comprising multiple humans, revealed that the majority of genomic alterations are the well-studied class of variants based on single nucleotides (SNPs). However, the results also reveal that lesser-studied genomic variants, insertions and deletions, while comprising a minority (22%) of genomic variation events, actually account for almost 74% of variant nucleotides. Inclusion of insertion and deletion genetic variation into our estimates of interchromosomal difference reveals that only 99.5% similarity exists between the two chromosomal copies of an individual and that genetic variation between two individuals is as much as five times higher than previously estimated. The existence of a well-characterized diploid human genome sequence provides a starting point for future individual genome comparisons and enables the emerging era of individualized genomic information.

http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.0050254

http://archive.is/Xngj6

Youtube Playlist – Race: Unique Expressions of Mankind

In Conclusion

 

“Race affects every physical characteristic, from height, to muscle mass, skull shape to average intelligence. Race also has serious medical implications. If a doctor treated all races the same, he would be sued for malpractice. Bone marrow transplants must be from someone of similar heritage, or their body will reject it, and the patient will die.  Your race determines your likelihood for a variety of diseases including HIV/AIDSMultiple Sclerosisdiabeteshypertensionsickle cell anemia, and many others. Some diseases are almost exclusive to one race, and organizations have been set up to test engaged couples of that race for prevalence.” -source

 

 If race doesn’t exist and it is merely a social construct, then how can criminologists identity the race of the victim by their skull or DNA?  And what about all the other evidence cited for the differences among the races?

 

The answer is inescapable; it’s because race is not a social construct, but a biological reality.

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 546 other subscribers

Hey I’m Joe, I write about natural philosophy, esoteric geometry, and other stuff that interests me.

5 Comments:

  1. jorge videla (bgi volunteer)

    is IQ like adiposity, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, cholesterol, etc. or is it like height? the former have been found to be as heritable as IQ in some studies, yet there is a known environmental change such that none will be fat, there will be no high blood pressure, no high cholesterol, no type ii diabetes. it works for everyone. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/17/6659.full

    this is the yuge problem with the heritability statistic. it is just a correlation. though the heritability figure may vary little, the genes responsible may. a given heritability figure applies only to the population under study at a particular time in a particular place. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reaction_norm

    specifically, heritability is square of the coeffecient of G in the planar approximation to the P(G, E) surface. P = hG + sqrt(1 – h^2)E. here P = phenotype, G = genes, E = environment, h^2 = heritability.

    there is no reason to suppose that the P(G, E) surface is planar, but like all smooth surfaces it can be approximated by a plane within a small region defined by small ranges of environment and genes.

    now you understand more than any of the behavior genetics folks. and those philosophers who have investigated this concept understand it better than and psychologist. psychology professors are dumb.

  2. jorge videla (bgi volunteer)

    when it is said “race is a social construct” this doesn’t mean it isn’t biological also. it’s just a way of saying, “race isn’t what racists think it is.” it’s stupid, i agree. as species of mammals go humans have very little genetic variation. chimps in the same troop can be more distant genetically than a swede and a hottentot. this is because humans are a recent species. it is also hypothesized that at some time long after the first human there was a population bottleneck. that is, the species nearly went extinct.

    • That has been debunked in the article. Just because there is little variation between one set of genes, does not mean there are not huge differences between the races. Read the part on 99%.. ——99%?
      I think there tends to be a big mis-understanding of what that number means. When you hear that number you assume that 99% of the information in each person is the same. But we don’t understand how much or how the DNA molecule stores information.

      When they say “same DNA”, generally they are talking about the sequence of amino acids are 99% the same. But we have VERY LITTLE IDEA how information is stored in them and what the limitations or lack of limitations in that information are. We know that the same code can store vastly different information -David Kincade

      https://www.quora.com/Is-that-true-that-all-humans-share-99-the-same-DNA-no-matter-how-different-two-people-are

  3. I agree there are physical differences between the different ‘races’, but really we are part of the same HUMAN race. For example: dogs are dogs – they are different breeds, but can mate and produce fertile offspring between breeds. Humans are humans: there are different “races” (breeds), but they can mate and produce fertile offspring. We are all one human race having a spiritual experience on planet earth.

    • That is called the naturalistic fallacy; just because something can be done in nature does not mean it should be done. Take mules for example. They are a combination of horses and donkeys. They can mate, but the offspring (mule) is fertile for the most part. Nature has a way of correcting mistakes. As in the case with different races mating, their offspring is less healthy, has psychologoical issues, etc. It goes on and on. The evidence for these claims is in the article.

What do you think?